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More than one billion people in the world suffer from poverty, most of them in developing countries. In this situation, I believe that developed countries should help developing countries overcome poverty for the following three reasons.
First, developed countries that have developed by colonizing other countries and exploiting their natural resources and human resources must make amends. Since the oppression by developed countries in the past has been one of the causes of the poverty conditions in developing countries today, developed countries should help solve the problem.
Second, economic assistance by developed countries to Third World countries will promote peace and stability in world affairs. Since poverty is a fundamental cause of conflict and terrorism, aid to reduce poverty will stabilize the international community, which in turn will lead to world peace and stability.
Finally, economic aid provided by developed countries to the Third World contributes to the prosperity of the world economy. When developed countries strive to close the technology gap with developing countries through ODA, economic growth in developing countries is stimulated, which in turn leads to economic development in developed countries.
In short, I am convinced that developed countries should assist developing countries to overcome poverty. This is for the reasons stated above, to atone for past exploitation, and to promote global stability and global economic prosperity.
Which is a greater threat to humanity, terrorism or world hunger?
解答例：I believe that hunger is a greater threat to humanity than terrorism. First, hunger affects the world more widely than terrorist attacks, causing malnutrition in nearly one-third of the world’s population. According to the United Nations, nearly 8 million people die annually from hunger, far more than the approximately 30,000 people killed by terrorism. Second, hunger is the root cause of terrorism. People in impoverished countries commit crimes and even resort to acts of terrorism to vent their anger against the rich.
Is world peace a remote possibility?
解答例：There are two reasons for this. First, religious and ethnic differences often lead to diplomatic setbacks that can escalate into military confrontations. History has proven examples of armed conflict, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the war between Muslims, Roman Catholics, and Serbian Orthodox Christians in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Second, the unbridled human desire to dominate others often leads to territorial expansionism and conflict. Violence and war are inseparable from human nature.
Should capital punishment be abolished?
解答例：There are two reasons for this. First, the death penalty runs the risk of executing innocent people. Unjust execution of innocent people is totally unjustifiable because it causes irreparable loss of human life. Second, the death penalty is inhumane and unethical. Legalizing the death penalty as a punishment means condoning murder and devaluing human life. The very act of killing violates everyone’s right to life and is, in fact, a cruel and barbaric punishment.
While there has been much discussion and debate about what role Japan should play as a member of the international community, I personally believe that Japan should play a greater role in international affairs for three reasons.
First, as an economic superpower, Japan should promote world peace and stability by increasing its ODA to developing countries. Since poverty is a major cause of international terrorism and conflict, further Japanese ODA to poor countries will contribute greatly to the realization of world peace.
Second, Japan has made technological advances in response to increasingly severe environmental pollution. As the threat of global warming increases around the world and natural resources dwindle, Japan should do its part to protect the global environment by promoting recycling and energy conservation.
Finally, as the only A-bombed country, Japan should take the initiative to educate the world about the horror of nuclear mass murder, in line with the growing global need for nuclear disarmament.
For the above three reasons, economic strength to promote world peace, advanced technology to protect the environment, and advantageous position for nuclear disarmament, I am convinced that Japan should play a greater role in international affairs.
Do nuclear weapons make the world less secure?
解答例：There are two reasons why I think so. First, the very existence of nuclear weapons threatens the entire world. If nuclear weapons fall into the hands of terrorists, the consequences could be disastrous. Second, nuclear weapons could cause unexpected nuclear accidents, such as the sinking of a nuclear submarine or the detonation of a nuclear missile in its silo. Nuclear weapons would do irreparable damage to the environment.
What role should the United Nations play in international politics?
解答例：I believe that the UN must fulfill three major roles. The first role is to promote peace and stability in the world. The UN should take the initiative in conflict resolution. The second role is to ensure the protection and promotion of human rights. The UN should protect people from enslavement and genocide and promote education and freedom of speech. Its third role is to promote sustainable development in the world. As an authoritative advocate for global environmental protection, the UN should play a leadership role in preserving the natural environment by promoting public awareness of the dangers of environmental degradation.
Should economic sanctions be used to achieve foreign policy objectives?
解答例：There are three reasons to believe so. First, economic sanctions can avoid the bloodshed of innocent civilians that could be caused by military intervention in a war zone. Second, economic sanctions can weaken the national power of the targeted country, thereby weakening aggression against the other country. Third, economic sanctions can maximize pressure on the leadership of the target country while minimizing the suffering of civilians.
There is much debate about whether free trade is beneficial to third world countries. While some point out the disadvantages, I personally believe that free trade is beneficial to developing countries.
First, free trade greatly encourages economic growth in Third World countries by expanding employment opportunities. This is because it promotes business activity and the free flow of workers between developing and developed countries. The increase in employment will increase purchasing power and stimulate national economies.
Second, trade liberalization will meet the demands of consumers in Third World countries and improve the quality of life of people. Increased trade and investment in a wider area of the world will provide a stable supply of food for consumers in developing countries, regardless of geographic or climatic conditions.
Finally, free trade will deepen economic interdependence and strengthen relations among nations. This symbiotic relationship will provide support and protection from powerful nations, especially vulnerable Third World countries against international threats.
In conclusion, I believe that free trade would be very beneficial to Third World countries for the three reasons stated above, because it would stimulate economic growth, improve the quality of life, and strengthen North-South relations.
Is foreign aid an effective way to promote economic growth in developing countries?
解答例：I believe that foreign aid is ineffective in promoting economic growth in developing countries for three reasons. First, corrupt governments in recipient countries often misappropriate foreign aid instead of using it for their own economic development. Second, foreign aid is often misused for the benefit of developed countries. Aid often comes with strings attached, and recipient countries are forced to use overpriced goods and services from donor countries. Third, foreign aid often increases the recipient country’s dependence on the donor country, thereby hindering reform of the fragile economic system.
What is the social responsibility of large corporations?
解答例：I believe that large corporations have two major CSR responsibilities. First, they should take responsibility for environmental preservation by developing environmentally friendly products and technologies, such as reducing CO2 emissions and combating pollution. Second, large companies should fulfill their CSR by practicing business ethics. They must comply with rules and regulations, promote fair trade, and prohibit bribery in bid rigging, exploitation and abuse of employees, and insider trading.
There has been much debate in Japan as to whether a company should adopt a merit-based or seniority-based promotion system. Personally, I believe that the promotion system should be based on performance for three reasons.
First of all, a performance-based promotion system increases company productivity because employees work more efficiently. Employees will work harder because they will be rewarded for their achievements. On the other hand, a seniority-based promotion system would promote employees regardless of their ability, which would weaken their motivation to work and reduce their work efficiency.
Second, a merit-based promotion system will contribute to the country’s economic growth. It will stimulate employees to improve their work skills, thus increasing the number of highly skilled personnel. As a result, company productivity will increase, leading to the economic growth of the country.
Finally, a performance-based promotion system gives employees a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction in their work, which in turn improves their quality of life. On the other hand, with a seniority-based system, employees would feel that they are being evaluated unfairly and would not get the satisfaction of having achieved something.
For these three reasons above, i.e., increasing company productivity, contributing to economic growth, and giving employees a sense of accomplishment, I am convinced that the promotion system should be based on a performance-based system.
Should the mandatory retirement system be abolished?
解答例：I believe that the mandatory retirement age should be abolished for two reasons. First, abolishing the mandatory retirement age will help solve the labor shortage. Japan is a hyper-aged society and will face a serious labor shortage in the near future. Without the mandatory retirement age system, Japanese companies will be able to secure an adequate workforce. Second, by abolishing the mandatory retirement age, the government can raise the age for receiving pension benefits, saving the national pension system, which is essential for the survival of the elderly.
Will the shift to non-regular employment have a negative impact on Japanese society?
解答例：There are two reasons for this. First, the increase in the number of part-time workers leads to a declining birthrate. Part-time workers with low and unstable incomes are less likely to give birth, exacerbating the aging of Japanese society. Second, lower disposable incomes will undermine domestic consumption in Japan. Financially unstable part-timers will not be able to obtain loans from banks large enough to make major purchases, such as a house or a car, thus depressing the Japanese economy.
There is much debate and discussion about whether national identity plays an important role in society. While some see national identity as important and others do not, I personally believe that national identity is becoming less important in today’s global society for two reasons.
The first is that with the increase in immigration, we have become a multicultural society, and the national identity of a country is diminishing. For example, in France, as Muslim immigration has increased in recent years, the number of second-generation immigrants who cannot communicate in their native language, French, has increased. A similar phenomenon is occurring in the U.S., where a large number of immigrants cannot speak English, their native language, making it increasingly difficult to educate them in their native language. This has fragmented society and threatened culture.
Second, adherence to national identity leads to nationalism and often causes international conflicts. In the context of the world’s growing economic interdependence, political and business leaders are becoming less tolerant of nationalistic behavior around the world.
For these two reasons, I am convinced that national identity is becoming less and less important in today’s global society for two reasons: increased multiculturalism due to increased immigration and nationalism is unacceptable because it is very problematic.
Is multiculturalism beneficial to society?
解答例：There are several reasons to believe so. First, multiculturalism stimulates the economy through increased foreign investment and employment opportunities. Second, multiculturalism promotes cultural diversity through the influx of different cultures, including languages and religions. Third, cross-cultural exchange broadens people’s perspectives and enables them to accept cultural differences, making them more tolerant and open-minded toward each other. Finally, multiculturalism makes people’s lives more exciting through diverse lifestyles and new cultures. Local people can enjoy a greater variety of products through multiculturalism.
Is religion necessary for society?
解答例：There are two reasons why I think so. First, religion can play an important role in inspiring people and alleviating emotional distress. Religion can give people hope and comfort, and give them confidence and courage in difficult times. Second, religion contributes to social cohesion and stability. This is because religion helps create a community in which people can develop a sense of solidarity through shared values and activities. Religion also contributes to social stability by providing people with moral values to live by.
Much discussion has occurred as to whether or not it is beneficial for the host country to host the International Games. Some argue that it is not worth the cost, but I believe that the benefits outweigh the disadvantages.
First of all, hosting an international athletic event stimulates the country’s economy. For example, it can generate huge revenues through corporate funding and telepromotion rights, and it can stimulate tourism or tourism-related industries.
Second, hosting an international sporting event will improve the infrastructure of the host country. The 1964 Tokyo Olympics is a successful example of this. Many infrastructure projects, such as bullet trains, new highways, and subways, contributed greatly to the development of the transportation network. While some point to their enormous construction costs, the development of infrastructure recoups that initial investment.
Finally, hosting an international sporting event such as the Olympics enhances a country’s prestige and brings a great many benefits. Some would counter that the global attention also increases the likelihood of becoming a target of terrorism, but in reality such things seldom happen.
In conclusion, I am convinced that the advantages of hosting international competitions outweigh the disadvantages because of these three benefits: economic revitalization, infrastructure development, and prestige enhancement.
Is Japan making enough efforts to preserve its cultural heritage?
解答例：No, I don’t think so. This is because the government does not provide sufficient support for the protection of cultural properties. For example, the budget allocated to cultural property protection is only 0.1% of the total national budget, which is extremely low compared to other countries. The government has also reduced the budget for the renovation of historical buildings and the training of human resources to protect traditional crafts. The shortage of successors to traditional crafts is worsening, and many long-established traditional crafts companies are going bankrupt.
Does art make an essential contribution to society?
解答例：There are several reasons to think so. First, art stimulates the economy. The production of Hollywood movies, music concerts, and the auctioning of paintings bring in huge profits and increase employment opportunities. Second, the arts greatly improve the quality of life. Movies, concerts, and museums bring great joy and excitement to our lives. Third, because art has universal value that transcends national borders, it promotes mutual understanding among people with different languages and values. Finally, art preserves the cultural heritage of humanity. Museums, exhibitions, and cultural heritage sites preserve numerous works of art created by great artists.
The question of whether or not nuclear power should be promoted has been a controversial issue in Japan, especially since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan. While there are some who argue that it is dangerous, I personally believe that nuclear power should be promoted for three reasons.
First, nuclear power is a clean energy source that does not emit greenhouse gases. Unlike fossil fuels, it can generate large amounts of electricity without emitting carbon dioxide, the main cause of global warming. Under the growing threat of global warming, nuclear power should be promoted to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Second, nuclear power is a stable energy source that can meet the world’s growing energy demand. Other alternative energy sources such as solar power and wind power are unstable and cannot meet the world’s energy demand. Nuclear power can sustainably supply large amounts of electricity and play a major role in a country’s industrial development.
Finally, nuclear power is more cost-effective than other methods of power generation. For example, the electricity generated from one gram of uranium is equivalent to three tons of coal and costs about 1/3,000th of the cost of coal. This cost-efficiency contributes significantly to economic growth.
In short, I am convinced that nuclear power should be promoted because it produces no carbon dioxide emissions, has high and stable output, and is cost-effective.
Do the benefits of genetic engineering outweigh the risks?
解答例：There are two reasons why I think so. First, the production of genetically modified foods can alleviate world hunger. These genetically modified foods are more resistant to disease, harmful insects, and harsh weather. They also have a longer shelf life than regular crops, providing a more stable food supply. Second, genetic engineering cures incurable and intractable diseases such as diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and AIDS. While some point to the ethical issues of genetic engineering and the great health risks, such as causing allergies and leukemia, I believe that the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.
Has technology changed education for the better?
解答例：There are three reasons to think so. First, teachers are now using interactive multimedia technology to enhance student learning. For example, audiovisual images and games make students more engaging and make teaching fun. Second, students have easy access to the wealth of information available on the Internet, allowing them to effectively develop their research skills. Finally, e-learning provides people with the opportunity to learn at a more reasonable cost, regardless of their geographic location.
There has been much discussion and controversy about the importance of space exploration. I believe that space exploration, even with its enormous costs, should continue for the following three reasons.
First, space exploration contributes to the advancement of science and technology by promoting scientific research and development. Space-based observations can more accurately predict the weather and detect forest fires, oil spills, aquifer depletion, etc. Space exploration will allow people to surf the Internet on their laptops and tablets from almost anywhere in the world.
Second, space exploration is a very safe investment that will stimulate the economy. The total economic return spent on the space program is valued at between $8 and $10 for every dollar spent; with NASA’s 2015 budget of 17.5 billion, the space industry is a very lucrative market.
Finally, space exploration promotes international cooperation and contributes to world peace and stability. For example, the International Space Station project involving 15 countries will contribute to closer cooperation among the participating countries, which in turn will foster friendly relations among them.
In conclusion, I am convinced that space exploration should be continued because of its benefits, as mentioned above: scientific and technological progress, economic stimulus, and contribution to world peace and stability.
Will the use of solar energy become widespread in the future?
解答例：There are two reasons for this. First, solar power is an alternative energy source to fossil fuels, which emit CO2, a major cause of global warming. Photovoltaic power generation is a clean and environmentally friendly energy source. Second, photovoltaic power generation is a renewable energy source and can solve the problem of natural resource depletion. It has the potential to meet the growing demand for green energy.
Since the advent of social networking, there has been much debate and controversy about whether it is beneficial to society. In the context of today’s growing number of social networking users, I believe that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages for the following three reasons.
First, social networking sites make relationships better. They help people stay in touch with friends they don’t see regularly, and they help people who are shy, socially isolated, or older to connect with others. While some argue that social networking sites can be time-consuming, relationships are a valuable asset.
Second, SNSs make it easy for useful information to be communicated among users. For example, when a natural disaster such as an earthquake occurs, people can share detailed information about the disaster and evacuation procedures. Although some people are concerned about the invasion of privacy on the Internet, most SNS users observe etiquette.
Finally, social networking sites encourage business as a cost-effective advertising medium. For example, a company can use various SNS features such as popularity and celebrity endorsements to attract the attention of millions of Facebook and Twitter users each day, thereby increasing the company’s sales.
Overall, I am convinced that the advantages of social networking, such as building valuable interpersonal relationships, easily communicating useful information, and boosting business, outweigh the disadvantages discussed above.
Does individual privacy outweigh the public’s right to know?
解答例：I believe that the public’s right to know trumps personal privacy, especially when it comes to news coverage of criminal investigations that affect the public interest and safety. The public has a right to know the truth about political corruption, murder, and other dangerous crimes. When it comes to the privacy of legislators, I think the public’s right to know trumps the public’s right to know. This is because they are usually in charge of the national government and are responsible for moving the money entrusted to them by the public.
Should playing online games be discouraged?
解答例：There are two reasons for this. First, online games are so addictive that they take up valuable time that could be spent on more productive activities, such as studying or exercising. In particular, children tend to cut down on their sleeping time to play games, leading to a serious decline in academic performance. Second, online gaming can be detrimental to players’ health by increasing sedentary behavior and exposure to computer screens. It can cause eye strain, poor posture, sleep deprivation, and sometimes metabolic syndrome.
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